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www.aemam.net
Bundesbrief von 1291

In Gottes Namen. Das öffentliche Ansehen und Wohl erfordert, dass Friedensordnungen dauernde Geltung gegeben werde. Darum haben alle Leute der Talschaft Uri, die Gesamtheit des Tales Schwyz und die Gemeinde der Leute der unteren Talschaft von Unterwalden im Hinblick auf die Arglist der Zeit zu ihrem besseren Schutz und zu ihrer Erhaltung einander Beistand, Rat und Förderung mit Leib und Gut innerhalb ihrer Täler und ausserhalb nach ihrem ganzen Vermögen zugesagt gegen alle und jeden, die ihnen oder jemand aus ihnen Gewalt oder Unrecht an Leib oder Gut antun. Und auf jeden Fall hat jede Gemeinde der andern Beistand auf eigene Kosten zur Abwehr und Vergeltung von böswilligem Angriff und Unrecht eidlich gelobt in Erneuerung des alten, eidlich bekräftigten Bundes, jedoch in der Weise, dass jeder nach seinem Stand seinem Herren geziemend dienen soll. Wir haben auch einhellig gelobt und festgesetzt, dass wir in den Tälern durchaus keinen Richter, der das Amt irgendwie um Geld oder Geldeswert erworben hat oder nicht unser Einwohner oder Landmann ist, annehmen sollen. Entsteht Streit unter Eidgenossen, so sollen die Einsichtigsten unter ihnen vermitteln und dem Teil, der den Spruch zurückweist, die anderen entgegentreten. Vor allem ist bestimmt, dass, wer einen andern böswillig, ohne Schuld, tötet, wenn er nicht seine Unschuld erweisen kann, darum sein Leben verlieren soll und, falls er entwichen ist, niemals zurückkehren darf. Wer ihn aufnimmt und schützt, ist aus dem Land zu verweisen, bis ihn die Eidgenossen zurückrufen. Schädigt einer einen Eidgenossen durch Brand, so darf er nimmermehr als Landmann geachtet werden, und wer ihn in den Tälern hegt und schützt, ist dem Geschädigten ersatzpflichtig. Wer einen der Eidgenossen beraubt oder irgendwie schädigt, dessen Gut in den Tälern soll für den Schadenersatz haften. Niemand soll einen andern, ausser einen anerkannten Schuldner oder Bürgen, pfänden und auch dann nur mit Erlaubnis seines Richters. Im übrigen soll jeder seinem Richter gehorchen und, wo nötig, den Richter im Tal, vor dem er zu antworten hat, bezeichnen. Gehorcht einer dem Gericht nicht und es kommt ein Eidgenosse dadurch zu Schaden, so habe alle andern jenen zur Genugtuung anzuhalten. Entsteht Krieg oder Zwietracht zwischen Eidgenossen und will ein Teil sich dem Rechtspruch oder der Gutmachung entziehen, so sind die Eidgenossen gehalten, den andern zu schützen. Diese Ordnungen sollen, so Gott will, dauernden Bestand haben.
Zu Urkund dessen ist auf Verlangen der Vorgenannten diese Urkunde gefertigt und mit den Siegeln der drei vorgenannten Gemeinden und Täler bekräftigt worden. Geschehen im Jahre des Herrn 1291 zu Anfang des Monats August.
(Quelle: Quellenwerk zur Entstehung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft Abt. 1, Urkunden Bd., 1 Aarau 1933.)


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Pacte fédéral du 1er août 1291

AU NOM DU SEIGNEUR, AMEN. C'EST ACCOMPLIR UNE ACTION HONORABLE ET PROFITABLE au bien public que de confirmer, selon les formes consacrées, les mesures prises en vue de la sécurité et de la paix. Que chacun sache donc que, considérant la malice des temps et pour être mieux à même de défendre et maintenir dans leur intégrité leurs vies et leurs biens, les gens de la vallée d'Uri, la Landsgemeinde de la vallée de Schwytz et celle des gens de la vallée inférieure d'Unterwald se sont engagés, sous serment pris en toute bonne foi, à se prêter les uns aux autres n'importe quels secours, appui et assistance, de tout leur pouvoir et de tous leurs efforts, sans ménager ni leurs vies ni leurs biens, dans leurs vallées et au dehors, contre celui et contre tous ceux qui, par n'importe quel acte hostile, attenteraient à leurs personnes ou à leurs biens (ou à un seul d'entre eux), les attaqueraient ou leur causeraient quelque dommage. Quoi qu'il arrive, chacune des communautés promet à l'autre d'accourir à son secours en cas de nécessité, à ses propres frais, et de l'aider autant qu'il le faudra pour résister à l'agression des méchants et imposer réparation du tort commis. C'est ce que, par le geste consacré, ils ont juré d'observer en toute loyauté, renouvelant par le présent traité le texte de l'ancien pacte corroboré par un serment; sous réserve que chacun, selon sa condition personnelle, reste soumis, comme il convient, à son seigneur et lui rende les prestations auxquelles il est tenu. De même, après commune délibération et d'un accord unanime, nous avons juré, statué et décidé que nous n'accepterions et ne reconnaîtrions en aucun cas dans lesdites vallées un juge qui aurait payé sa charge de quelque manière, soit en argent soit à quelque autre prix, ou qui ne serait pas de chez nous et membre de nos communautés. Si d'autre part un conflit surgit entre quelques-uns, les plus sages des confédérés doivent intervenir en médiateurs pour apaiser le différend de la façon qui leur paraîtra efficace; et les autres confédérés doivent se tourner contre la partie qui repousserait leur sentence. Outre tout cela, ils ont établi un statut commun, stipulant que celui qui, criminellement et sans provocation, commettra un meurtre, sera, si on a pu se saisir de lui, puni de mort comme son crime infâme l'exige; à moins qu'il ne puisse prouver qu'il est innocent; et s'il réussit à s'échapper, il lui est à jamais interdit de revenir au pays. Ceux qui accorderaient abri ou protection audit malfaiteur doivent être expulsés des vallées, aussi longtemps qu'ils n'auront pas été expressément rappelés par les confédérés. Si quelqu'un, de jour ou dans le silence de la nuit, met criminellement le feu aux biens d'un confédéré, on ne doit plus jamais le considérer comme membre d'une de nos communautés. Et celui qui, dans nos vallées, prendrait le parti du dit malfaiteur et le protégerait devra indemniser la victime. De plus, si l'un des confédérés en dépouille un autre de ses biens ou lui cause n'importe quel autre dommage, les biens du coupable que l'on pourra saisir dans les vallées doivent être mis sous séquestre pour dédommager la victime conformément au droit. En outre, nul n'a le droit de saisie envers un autre confédéré, à moins que celui-ci ne soit notoirement son débiteur ou ne se soit porté caution envers lui; et il ne doit le faire qu'en vertu d'un prononcé spécial du juge. Outre cela, chacun est tenu d'obéir à son juge et doit, s'il est besoin, indiquer de quel juge il relève dans la vallée. Et si quelqu'un refuse de se soumettre au jugement rendu, et que l'un des confédérés subisse quelque dommage du fait de son obstination, tous les confédérés sont tenus de contraindre à réparation le récalcitrant. Et surgisse une querelle ou une discorde entre quelques confédérés, si l'une des parties se refuse à tout arrangement par voie judiciaire ou par accommodement, les confédérés sont tenus de prendre fait et cause pour l'autre partie. Les décisions ci-dessus consignées, prises dans l'intérêt et au profit de tous, doivent, si Dieu y consent, durer à perpétuité; en témoignage et confirmation de quoi le présent acte, dressé à la requête des prénommés, a été muni des sceaux des trois communautés et vallées susdites. Fait en l'an du Seigneur 1291 au début du mois d'août.
(Origine: Quellenwerk zur Entstehung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft Abt. 1, Urkunden Bd., 1 Aarau 1933.)


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Patto federale del 1° agosto 1291

NEL NOME DEL SIGNORE, COSÌ SIA. È OPERA ONOREVOLE ED UTILE CONFERMARE, nelle debite forme, i patti della sicurezza e della pace. Sia noto dunque a tutti, che gli uomini della valle di Uri, la comunità della valle di Svitto e quella degli uomini di Untervaldo, considerando la malizia dei tempi ed allo scopo di meglio difendere e integralmente conservare sè ed i loro beni, hanno fatto leale promessa di prestarsi reciproco aiuto, consiglio e appoggio, a salvaguardia così delle persone come delle cose, dentro le loro valli e fuori, con tutti i mezzi in loro potere, con tutte le loro forze, contro tutti coloro e contro ciascuno di coloro che ad essi o ad uno d'essi facesse violenza, molestia od ingiuria con il proposito di nuocere alle persone od alle cose. Ciascuna delle comunità promette di accorrere in aiuto dell'altra, ogni volta che sia necessario, e di respingere, a proprie spese, secondo le circostanze, le aggressioni ostili e di vendicare le ingiurie sofferte. A conferma che tali promesse saranno lealmente osservate, prestano giuramento, rinnovando con il presente accordo l'antico patto pure conchiuso sotto giuramento; con l'avvertenza tuttavia che ognuno di loro sarà tenuto, secondo la sua personale condizione, a prestare al proprio signore l'obbedienza ed i servizi dovutigli. Abbiamo pure, per comune consenso e deliberazione unanime, promesso, statuito ed ordinato di non accogliere nè riconoscere in qualsiasi modo, nelle suddette valli, alcun giudice il quale abbia acquistato il proprio ufficio mediante denaro od altra prestazione, ovvero non sia abitante delle nostre valli o membro delle nostre comunità. Se sorgesse dissenso fra i confederati, i più prudenti di loro hanno l'obbligo d'intervenire a sedar la discordia, nel modo che loro sembrerà migliore; e se una parte respinge il giudizio proferito, gli altri confederati le si mettano contro. Resta inoltre convenuto fra di loro quanto segue: Chi avrà ucciso alcuno con premeditazione e senza colpa imputabile alla vittima, sia, se preso, mandato a morte, come esige il suo nefando delitto, salvo che riesca a provare la sua innocenza; se fosse fuggito, gli si vieti il ritorno. Chi ricetta o protegge un tal malfattore, deve essere bandito dalle valli, nè potrà ritornarvi finchè non sia esplicitamente richiamato dai confederati. Se alcuno, di giorno o nel silenzio della notte, dà dolosamente fuoco ai beni dei confederati, non sia più considerato come membro della comunità. E se alcuno, dentro le valli, favorisce o difende il suddetto malfattore, sia costretto a risarcire egli stesso il danneggiato. Inoltre, se un confederato spoglierà alcuno delle sue cose o gli recherà danno in qualsiasi modo, tutto quanto il colpevole possiede nelle valli dovrà essere sequestrato per dare giusta soddisfazione alla persona lesa. Inoltre nessuno potrà appropriarsi il pegno d'un altro, salvo che questo sia manifestamente suo debitore o fideiussore; ed anche in tal caso occorre che il giudice esplicitamente acconsenta. Ognuno deve pure obbedire al suo giudice e, se necessario, indicare quale sia nella valle il giudice sotto la cui giurisdizione egli si trova. E se alcuno si rifiutasse d'assoggettarsi al giudizio e da questa ribellione venisse danno ad alcuno dei confederati, tutti sono in obbligo di costringere il suddetto contumace a dar soddisfazione. Se poi insorgesse guerra o discordia fra alcuni dei confederati, e una parte non volesse rimettersi al giudice o accettare soddisfazione, i confederati difenderanno l'altra parte. Tutte le decisioni qui sopra esposte sono state prese nell'interesse ed a vantaggio comune, e dureranno se il Signore lo consente, in perpetuo. In fede di che questo strumento è stato redatto dietro richiesta dei predetti e munito dei sigilli delle tre prefate comunità e valli. Fatto l'anno del Signore 1291, al principio del mese d'agosto.
(Fonte: Quellenwerk zur Entstehung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft Abt. 1, Urkunden Bd., 1 Aarau 1933.)


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Patg federal 1291 (text en surselvisch)

En num dil Segner. Amen. IgI ei ina caussa che descha e survescha al cuminetel de confirmar en dueivla fuorma ils patgs che sigereschan pasch e ruaus. Perquei duei in e scadin saver, che ils umens della val d'Uri, la cuminonza della val de Sviz ed il cumin dils umens de Silvania, considerond la malezia dil temps, sinaquei ch'els possien pli tgunsch defender e mantener en stan dueivel sesez ed il lur, han empermess en buna fei d'assister in l'auter cun agid, cussegl e sustegn, cun veta e beins, enteifer las vals ed ordeifer, tenor tut puder e saver, encunter tuts ed encunter scadin, che commettess enviers els ni in d'els in act de violenza, mulesta ni ingiuria, culla mira de far donn a persunas ni caussas. E per scadin cass ha mintgin dils cumins empermess de prestar siu succuors, sco ch'ei fagess basegns de gidar, e quei sin agen spiendi, ton sco ei sedrovi, per resister ad attaccas de glieud malvuglida e prender vendetga per malgiustias caschunadas da lur vart. Cun detta stendida han els prestau serament de salvar tut quei senza negina malart, renovond cul patg present la brev della ligia gia engirada pli da vegl. Quei denton taluisa, che in e scadin resti obligaus tenor la cundiziun de siu num de star sut e survir convegnentamein a siu signur. Suenter cussegl communabel havein nus empermess, stabiliu ed ordinau cun consentiment unanim, che nus vegnien en nossas vals sura numnadas maina vertir ni acceptar in derschader, che havess cumprau siu uffeci per prezi de daner ni autruisa ni fussi buca nies convischin ni habitont della tiara. Mo sch'ei dess carplina denter entgins confederai, lu duein ils pli sabis denter els intervegnir e lugar la dispeta denter las parts taluisa, sco ei para ad els convegnent, ed alla part che sbittass il truament, duein tuts ils auters confederai semetter encunter. Mo surtut eis ei tschentament denter els, che tgi che mazzass in auter cun fraud e senza cuopla de lez, vegnend traplaus, piardi sia veta, sco quei che tala sgarscheivla cuopla mereta, nun ch'el possi cumprovar sia innocenza de quei malfatg, e sch'el vegness forsa de mitschar, duei el mai pli puder turnar. E tgi che dess albiert e schurmetg ad in tal malfatschent, quel seigi bandischaus dallas vals, entochen ch'el vegn buca silsuenter clamaus anavos dals confederai. Mo sch'enzatgi fagess donn ad in dils confederai, seigi da di ni ella tgeuadad della notg, cun metter fiug da bugen, quel duei mai pli vegnir tenius per convischin della tiara. E tgi che favorisass ni protegess quei malfatschent enteifer las vals, duei sez dar satisfacziun al donnegiau. Milsanavon, sch'in dils confederai entras enguladetsch ni autruisa caschunass a zatgi auter donn vid ses beins, duei la rauba dil culpont, ton sco ins contonscha en las vals, vegnir prida a mauns per procurar tenor giustia satisfacziun alla persuna violada en siu dretg. Sur de quei duei negin tschaffar in pègn d'in auter, nun che quel seigi manifestamein siu debitur ni sia segironza, ed era quei daventi lu spirontamein cun lubientscha speciala de siu derschader. Plinavon duei scadin obedir a siu derschader ed en cass de basegns indicar quei derschader ella val, avon il qual el ha propriamein de cumparer. E sch'enzatgi serebellass encunter il truament ed in dils confederai pitess donn per sia stinadadad, ein tuts confederai obligai de sfurzar il renitent de dar satisfacziun. Mo sch'ei sesalzass uiara ni discordia denter entgins dils confederai e che ina part senuspess de seremetter al dretg ni de dar satisfacziun, ein ils confederai obligai de sustener l'autra vart. Ils tschentaments sura screts, stabili per il cuminetel e sallt, duein, sche Dieus vul, cuzzar en perpeten. En testimoni de quei e per giavisch dils suranumnai ei il present document vegnius relaschaus e corroboraus culs sigils dellas treis allegadas communitads e valladas. Daventau igl onn dil Segner 1291, alla entschatta dil meins d'uost.
(Origin: Quellenwerk zur Entstehung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft Abt. 1, Urkunden Bd., 1 Aarau 1933.)


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Federal Charter of 1291

1291 IN THE NAME OF GOD AMEN. HONOR AND THE public weal are promoted when leagues are concluded for the proper establishment of quiet and peace. Therefore, know all men, that the people of the valley of Uri, the democracy of the valley of Schwyz, and the community of the Lower Valley of Unterwalden, seeing the malice of the age, in order that they may better defend themselves, and their own, and better preserve them in proper condition, have promised in good faith to assist each other with aid, with every counsel and every favor, with person and goods, within the valley and without, with might and main, against one and all, who may inflict upon any one of them any violence, molestation or injury, or may plot any evil against their persons or goods. And in every case each community has promised to succour the other when necessary, at its own expense, as far as needed in order to withstand the attacks of evil-doers, and to avenge injuries; to this end they have sworn a solemn oath to keep this without guile, and to renew by these presents the ancient form of the league, also confirmed by an oath. Yet in such a manner that every man, according to his rank, shall obey and serve his overlord as it behooves him. We have also vowed, decreed and ordained in common council and by unanimous consent, that we will accept or receive no judge in the aforesaid valleys, who shall have obtained his office for any price, or for money in any way whatever, or one who shall not be a native or a resident with us. But if dissension shall arise between any of the Eidgenossen (confederates; Eid = oath, Genosse = fellow, comrade ), the most prudent amongst the confederates shall come forth to settle the difficulty between the parties, as shall seem right to them; and whichever party rejects their verdict shall be held an adversary by the other confederates. Furthermore, it has been established between them that he who deliberately kills another without provocation, shall, if caught, lose his life, as his wicked guilt requires, unless he be able to prove his innocence of said crime; and if per chance he escape, let him never return. Those who conceal and protect said criminal shall be banished from the valley, until they be expressly recalled by the confederates. But if any one of the confederates, by day, or in the silence of the night, shall maliciously injure another by fire, he shall never again be considered a fellow-countryman. If any man protect and defend the said evil-doer, he shall render satisfaction to the one who has suffered damage. Furthermore, if any one of the confederates shall spoil another of his goods, or injure him in any way, the goods of the guilty one, if recovered within the valleys, shall be seized in order to pay damages to the injured person, according to justice. Furthermore, no man shall seize another's goods for debt, unless he be evidently his debtor or surety, and this shall only be done with the special permission of his judge. Moreover, every man shall obey his judge, and if necessary, must himself indicate the judge in the valley, before whom he ought properly to appear. And if any one rebels against a verdict, and, in consequence of his obstinacy, any one of the confederates is injured, all the confederates are bound to compel the culprit to give satisfaction. But if war or discord arise amongst any of the confederates and one party of the disputants refuse to accept the verdict of the judge or to give satisfaction, the confederates are bound to defend the other party. The above-written statutes, decreed for the common welfare and benefit, shall endure forever, God willing. ln testimony of which, at the request of the aforesaid parties, the present charter has been drawn up and confirmed with the seals of the aforesaid three communities and valleys. So done in the year of the Lord 1291 at the beginning of the month of August.
(Source: The Origin of the Swiss Confederation Section 1, Document Volume 1, Aarau, 1933.)
 

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THE SWISS FEDERAL PACT OF 1291

In the name of God, the Almighty, amen.

It is accomplishing an honorable and beneficial action for the public well-being to confirm in the established forms the conventions aimed at peace and security.

[1.] Let it be known to everybody, considering the prevailing evil and in order to better defend and maintain, in their integrity, their families and their property, that the People of the valleys of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden, in good faith, have pledged to assist each other with help, with advice and with all favors, persons and goods, inside their valleys and beyond, with all their power and resourcefulness, against all and against anybody nourishing bad intentions or who committed a crime, an offense or an injustice against any one or more of them, or concerning their property.

[2.] Each Community has pledged to come to the aid of the other, whenever that is necessary, to help against and, in as much as that is indicated, at its own costs, to resist and revenge the attacks of ill-intended people, having previously made such an oath which is herewith effectively renewed,

[3.] notwithstanding each person's right, to the best of its abilities, to be obedient and helpful to his [or her] master.

[4.] After joint consultations, we have also unanimously agreed, set and ordered that the People of the above-named valleys will, under no circumstances, receive or accept a judge who is not one of us [i.e. a resident Citizen], or who has bought his judgeship with money or any kind of favor on any way.

[5.] Should a difference occur among any of the Confederates, it is incumbent on those who carry the most respect to intervene and appease the difference with the most effective means considered indicated. All other Confederates shall unite against the party which refuses the [arbitration] sentence.

[6.] Also they have agreed to the following rules to be observed: he who, with intent and without being provoked, caused somebody's death, shall, as is indicated by the infamy of this crime and unless he can show his innocence, be put to death when he is caught; if he escaped he shall never be allowed to return. Those giving shelter and protection to such an evil person shall be banned from these valleys unless the Confederates have called them back.

[7.] He who, with intent, by day or in the dark of the night, set fire to the property of a Confederate, shall have lost forever his rights as a member of our Communities, and he who shelters and protects this offender shall in our valleys compensate the injured.

[8.] Moreover, the property in the valleys of any Confederate who, by way of robbery or otherwise, inflicted any damage on the property of any other Confederate, shall be sequestrated in as much as is needed to compensate said damage in due course.

[9.] Also, nobody among ourselves shall seize the other's property without a valid public title or a guarantee, and then only with a special authorization from his [the competent] judge.

[10.] Each one shall be obedient to his judge and if that becomes necessary, shall indicate the judge which he is prepared to recognize.

[11.] Whoever opposes or refuses obedience to a [competent] court and thus causes damage to anyone among us, shall be liable to render satisfaction which is to be enforced by all other Confederates.

[12.] Should war or a conflict break out among the Confederates and one party refuses to respect the laws and customs, all other Confederates shall protect the other party.

[13.] The above-mentioned laws, set as they are in the interest and for the benefit of all, shall, God permitting, remain in force forever. In witness whereof the present act, set up at the request of the aforesaid, has been validated with the affixed seals of the above-mentioned Communities and valleys. Done at the beginning of August in the year of the Lord 1291.