Signatories of the Treaty of Lausanne of 24 July 1923
(full text at:
and at:
British Empire, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania, Serb-Croat-Slovene State and Turkey
Switzerland (host State), Germany, US and USSR (non-signatory observer States)
 Australia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Canada, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, United Kingdom (successor States)

CORUM Research Group, box 2580, 1211 Geneva 2 ( ¦
other treaties & instruments: 1919 St-Germain-en-Laye (Yugoslavia), 1932 LN Geneva (Iraq)

Turkey  (Presidency  f: 0090312-4685026  -  e:;;
Prime Minister  e:; Foreign Ministry  f: 0090312-2873869)

British Empire  (successors: United Kingdom, Canada, Australia) France  (Elysée  f: 00331-42928299/42660476;  Quai d'Orsay  f: -43175203) Italy  (Foreign Ministry  f: 003906-3236210, -36914199) Japan  (Prime Minister  -  e:;  Foreign Ministry  f: 00813-64022345) Greece  (Prime Minister  -  e:; Foreign Ministry  f: 003010-3681717) Romania  (Presidency  -  e:;  Foreign Ministry  f:  00401-3127589) Serb-Croat-Slovene State   (successors: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia,
Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia) _______________
non-signatory Conference observers

Germany  (Chancellery  f: 0049228-562357;  Foreign Ministry  f: 0049228-173402)

Russia  (Kremlin  f: 007095-2449248,  -2442203  -  e:;
Foreign Ministry  f: 007095-2443276) United States  (White House  f: 001202-4562461,  -6470967  -  e:;
Department of State  f: 001202-6476047) _______________

United Nations  (Secretary-General  f: 001212-9632155)

Switzerland  (Foreign Ministry  f: 004131-3241289  -  e:

________________,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, momir.bulatovic@gov.yu,

cp. 2580  -  1211 Geneva 2       t+f: +4122-7400362

  Anton Keller, Secretary

July 24, 2002

His Excellency, The Minister of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Foreign Affairs

re: 2003 Lausanne Treaty seminar

Your Excellency,

Today, 79 years ago, besides your own predecessor, the foreign ministers or plenipotentiaries of the other signatory and observer countries (British Empire, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania, Serb-Croate-Slovene State and Turkey, as well as Germany, Russia and the United States) concluded the formal wrap up of the Ottoman Empire breakup with the Lausanne Treaty of 24 July 1923.  Having failed to provide adequate and lasting answers to the special conditions and legitimate aspirations of the people concerned, the current generations appear to be entitled to revisit the roots, evolution and results of this particular treaty.

With a view to explore further opportunities to advance on the path towards a regionally stabilizing, ethnically balanced and economically viable settlement of outstanding issues in the Middle East by drawing inspiration notably from the minority protection clauses of the Lausanne Treaty ( and of subsequent instruments of international public law (, duly elected representatives of Iraq's Arab, Assyrian, Kurdish and Turcoman communities are thus proposing to hold a commemorative seminar or forum next year, with the agenda, place and time to be decided at a preparatory meeting to be held at an early date at a suitable venue.  Having been requested to assist in the organization of this meeting, it is our privilege to invite you to express your views on this proposal and, in the event, to consider taking an active role in this matter in line with your country's foreign affairs traditions and policy objectives.

Trusting this communication to receive your benevolent attention and to elicit your prompt response, we take this opportunity to assure Your Excellency of our highest consideration and remain, sincerely yours,

Anton Keller, Secretary
Good Offices Group of European Lawmakers

"Commemorative 2003 Lausanne Treaty Seminar - Preparatory Meeting" (

Commemorative 2003 Lausanne Treaty Meeting

1.    The following political parties and groups who, in 1994, took part in the political life of the Mosul Vilayet (Iraq's Northern governorates;, had associated themselves with the Unity Declaration of 31 May 1994 ( either through their presidents or their representatives:

Bet-Nahrain Democratic Party (Eshaya Hurmuz DAWOUD),
Centre of Culture and Support from Christians (Fuad Askander ALAKA),
Iraqi Democratic Salvation Movement (Abu Haider AL-WASITY),
Iraqi Turkman Union Party (Saifaddin DAMIRCHI),
Islamic National Movement in Kurdistan (A. MOUSTAFA),
Islamic Unity Party (Sarwan Majeed AHMED),
Kurdistan Conservative Party (Omar Khidher AL-SOURCHI),
Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) (Massoud BARZANI, represented),
Kurdistan National Party (Jabar Abdulla Mirza ROSTAMI)
Kurdistan Old Fighters Society (Muhammed Ismaeel HAMAD),
Kurdistan Rizgari Party (Rekar Aziz AHMED),
Kurdistan Union of Independence (Renas MUHAMMED),
Kurdistany Socialist Party (Moohamad Haji Mahmood GOLA-KHAN),
Kurdish Nationalist Society (Bakhtiar Shawkat ZANGANA),
Kurdish Nationalist Society - Progressive Leadership (Ghafour MAKHMOURY),
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) (Jalal TALABANI, represented),
Turkman Brotherhood Party (Waleed Muhammed Salih SHARIKA),
Turkman Union Party (Riyaz SARIKAHYA),
Turkoman Woman Union (Nergiz Abdulla AZIZ),
Work Party for Kurdish Independence (Wirya SAEED),
Yazidian Community (Edou Baba SHEIK, MP)
2.    With a view to explore further opportunities to advance on the path towards a regionally stabilizing, ethnically balanced and economically viable settlement of outstanding issues in the Middle East by drawing inspiration notably from the minority protection clauses of the Treaty of Lausanne of 24 July 1923 ( and of subsequent instruments of international public law (,Sheik Salar al-Hafeed (Registrar of Sulaimanyia), in cooperation with Najim Khedher Al-Sourchi (Registrar and Keeper of Records of the Mosul Vilayet), has obtained the support from the following presidents and leaders of political parties for preparing a seminar commemorating in 2003 the Lausanne Treaty at a place and time of mutual convenience:
    Muhammad Haji Mahmood (KSDP) 6/26/55 [Z3481205, 5/28/98-5/28/03]
    Taher Mohammad Raoufi 4/23/40 [B2978696, 9/4/97-9/4/07]
        f: 0098216953440, m: 008821667750120, 00447077520577
    Smael N. Benjamin (Assyrian Democratic Movement ADM) 6/6/1959 [N441011, 7/15/01-7/14/05]  -  Arbil 2259997
    Subhi Mahdi (Kurdistan Communist Party KCP) 7/1/62 [98SG3866417, ?-5/14/04]
    Ali Abdul Aziz Muhammad (Kurdistan Islamic Movement KIM) 9/1/31 [13556N, 12/17/1419-1/22/1425]
        3129584, 00870763868038, 008831667750136, 00442072665964
    Irfan Jamal Tafeeq (Iraqi Turkman Union Party ITUP) 1/2/66 [0445038M/4730, 11/20/00-11/25/04]
        3133070, m: 077523468
    Salah Mohammad Bahauddeen (Kurdistan Islamic Union KIU) 7/1/50 [N00017783, 5/5/99-5/4/03]
    Bahaddeen Noori Baba Ali (Democratists Movement DM) 3/6/27 [M0379821, 7/19/96-7/17/04]
    Prince Muhamad Najeb Hassan (Islamic Society) 7/1/47 [N137588, 5/3/99-5/3/03]
    Nariman Gomei (Socialist Kurdish Party/PASOK)
    Irfan Karkukli (Iraqi Turkoman People Party)

3.    Anton Keller (Secretary, Good Offices Group of European Lawmakers, Adviser and Representative of the Mosul Vilayet to international organizations) has agreed to explore with interested governments related questions and, in the event, to facilitate the related contacts and travel arrangements.

Thinking things over
Mohammad Siddiq Mahmoud - the poet, lawyer and
author of Iraq's evolving alternative draft Constitution
who, before turning into a leader of the US-incited
and then betrayed Kurdish uprising of 1991,
had served mainly as jester at the Court of Saddam
as agriculture minister, governor of Dohuk
and presidential adviser - has destilled his experiences,
insights, and visions into a non-partisan appeal to
"all Iraqis and their friends at home and abroad".
For those who have lost confidence in the free flow of things
and who wish to take matters into their own hand,
I recommend his attached one-pager
"Iraqi Peace, Security & Independence" as food for thought
(translated into Arabic & Kurdish in pdf format; see subsite).
At a time, when past exemplary achievements of cultural,
ethnic & religious neighborliness, tolerance & even harmony
have given way to old prejudices & externally-fueled hatred
voices of reason deserve the support of Iraq’s true friends.
The dangerous cycle of violence can and must be broken
at every level when and where an opportunity presents itself.
Siddiq’s initiative is an illustration of what one man can do.
His former comrade-in-arms and current President Talabani
can both enhance his own survival and show true leadership
by heeding the multiple calls by women in- & outside of Iraq
to suspend all death sentences for women until after the war.
The Assyrians’ all-embracing proposals for equitable power-
& fruit-sharing have a real chance to move the US Congress.
The Kurds & Turkomans, like the Sunnis, Shiites & Yezidis,
are genuine stakeholders of Iraq’s cultural, oil & other wealths
and all disputes about Kirkuk & other claims are thus mute.
These guardians of Arbil, the world’s oldest inhabited zigurat,
are trusted to avail this treasure to all brethren in One God for
the good study of their individual & common monotheistic roots.
Those now threatening their brethren in One God – be they
Assyrians, Shiites, Sunnis or Yezidi - may thus rediscover
& live the ancient & eternal wisdom of their own forefathers:
Good Thoughts, Good Words, Good Deeds.
Iconoclast (writing to friends here & there on May 15, 2007)

* * *
Mohammed S. Mahmoud D-53340 Meckenheim +49175-6159618 ¦
(url: ¦ Arabic ¦ Kurdish)

„In the name of God, the Almighty, Amen" (Swiss Federal Pact of 1291)
Iraqi Peace, Security & Independence
Iraq Mustaqil, Aamin, Mustaqirr - To whom it may concern (æmam)

AEMAM, in Arabic, is the plural of æmama which is a kind of turban worn by pious or religious persons. Moreover, it means all other kinds of cloth which most male Iraqis are wrapping around their heads, thus expressing their individuality and identity.

AEMAM is also the abbreviation of Iraq, mustaqil, aammin, mustaqirr. As such, and in an environment where words can have great bearing on matters affecting both the wider community and its individual members, this particular word avails itself as a common denominator. For it reminds all of us Iraqis of our peaceful life, of the importance to preserve peace in our hearts, and of our capacity and inclination to forgive and to love our home and country. Deep inside us, we all feel that we must work hard for the realization of this precious individual and common good, and that the maintenance of our national identity, sovereignty and security depends on our individual capacity and willingness to contribute our fair share on the way to reclaim Iraq‘s genuine independence and prosperity for now and the future.

We Iraqis must find on our own, essentially, this obstacle-strewn uncharted road, following the wisdom of Antonio Machado: "Traveller, there is no road, the road is made by the traveller!" In this sense:

- We call on all fellow-citizens, political powers, groups and parties which either participate in or are outside the Iraqi government, and all armed groups either with the government or fighting against occupation, and all religious authorities and humanitarian and social organizations, union, syndicates, and other entities of Iraq‘s civil society, to assume their responsibility as sovereign partners in our strategic search for our common moorings, interests and goals, to contribute their part of curative balm on the bleeding wounds of Iraq, and to desist from all actions which might hinder us in our search for our own Iraqi way and future.

- We invite all countries around Iraq, i.e. the Islamic Iranian Republic, the Kingdom of Jordan, the State of Kuwait, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Arabic Syrian Republic, and the Turkish Republic, to join us in a forward-looking, principled and mutually respectful dialogue, and to cooperate towards a stable, peaceful and prosperous Iraq and a Middle Eastern future worthy of its past.

- We invite the United Nations, UNESCO, FAO, ILO, UNDP, WHO, UNHCR, UNICEF, etc., the ICRC and the Red Crescent societies, the European Union, interested national organizations, and NGOs to study Iraq‘s needs and to indicate their possible contributions to the reconciliation of Iraq‘s society and to the reconstruction of Iraq‘s infrastructure and economy, with due consideration of current priorities in the fields of confidence-building, consense-building, de-mining, health, education, agriculture, water, energy, land registry, human rights, civil rights, family and labor. We trust that their participation will benefit the Iraqi people, as the health and wealth of the Iraqi people will benefit those having extended a helping hand in time of need.

Inspired by the obligeing roots of Iraq‘s civilization, we invite every individual capable of contributing in the above tasks to join us in moving forward; this applies to both Iraqis, and to other nationals of good will and who may sense an inner calling for some of the questions that are attached to this note.

We are thus starting this dialogue which will be carried further on our home page And we anticipate to intensify our consultations on the agenda and dates for more formal meetings on the many unresolved issues – possibly along the lines of Iraq‘s constituant Declaration of 30 May 1932 ( It remains to be seen, whether the Swiss Government of 2007 will be as immaginative and forthcoming as it was in 1923 when its good offices included the holding of the International Conference of Lausanne. To this effect we are looking forward to hear the voices of reason, good will and vision as the time ripens.

With best wishes for the New Year

Mohammed Siddiq Mahmoud (Lawyer)
Mohammed S. Mahmoud Mittelstr.7 D-53340 Meckenheim +49175-6159618 (21 January 2007) ¦ (url: ¦ Arabic ¦ Kurdish)

To all Iraqis and their friends at home & abroad

I have been in a country, Switzerland,
where they practise Islam but where there are no Muslims,
and I have returned to my homeland, Egypt,
where there are Muslims but where there is no Islam.
Mohammed Abdul Khalek Hassouna,
2nd Secretary General of the Arab League (1889-1992)
On a 1 to 10 scale, in your opinion, what is the importance of individual liberties, human rights, etc., as compared to the importance, for you, of the common good? In other words:
  1. What are your views on individual liberties, and on the roles of religion and the State in exercising them?
  2. Switzerland evolved over centuries on the basis of consensus-building and full power-sharing among equal sovereign citizens belonging mostly to religious, cultural, language and national minorities. Can this serve as a source of inspiration for Iraq? What is your position concerning minorities, private property, civil rights for all Iraqis?
  3. What is your preferred system of government, centralized and parliament-based or decentralized, e.g. tribal structures, self-governing communes, and largely sovereign cantons, like in Switzerland, with limited delegated national competences in such fields as defense, foreign policy, civil code, infrastructure, oil exports ( ¦
  1. How important, for you and Iraq‘s future, is Iraq‘s past, its cultural heritage and national awareness of historial facts and myths, as sources of national reconciliation, rebuilding and prosperity?
  2. Are you aware of Iraq‘s constituant and juridically still fully valid Declaration of 30 May 1932 on which basis the Council of the League of Nations recognized Iraq‘s independence of 3 October 1932 and admitted its League membership and on which basis Iraq became a founding member of the United Nations (
  3. Do you consider the centralized administrative forms prior to and during the Mandate Periode (1921-1932) to be irrelevant now as they were, essentially, imposed on Iraq by foreign powers? Or, as history seems to repeat itself, are today‘s strangely similar circumstances not making it that more advisable to look also at those and subsequent experiences as a source of inspiration for finding common ground and a practical pathway into Iraq‘s future? This may be particularly important as the current powers that be have chosen and continue to pursue their own agendas by ignoring, denying and misleading the Iraqi citizens on essential facts of international law. This refers in particular to the special conditions and international minority and private property protection guarantees granted in favor of the Arab, Assyrian, Jewish, Kurdish, Turkoman, Yezidi and other constituant communities of the Mosul Vilayet and which, in the form of an Iraqi confederation similar to that of the United Arab Emirates or Switzerland, may be extended to the Baghdad and the Basra Vilayets (
  4. What ideas do you, as a sovereign Iraqi citizen, have and care to bring into the debate, for re-installing security and law and order, for returning stolen goods, for compensating victims, for recovering the lost generations of Iraq‘s youth and future, for feeding Iraq‘s hungry, for bringing Iraq‘s productive forces fully back into play, and for bringing about real, early and lasting reconciliation, both among all of Iraq‘s constituant communities and its foreign partners? Would you agree to favor Iraq‘s long-term interests abroad also by strengthening person-to-person relationships particularly with those foreigners who have put their life on the line for seeking to advance the cause of Iraqi peace, security & independence, e.g. by granting them Iraqi citizenship?
We invite you to submit your replies, notes and suggestions by email ( ¦ in one of the following languages: English, Arabic or Kurdish.

Mohammed S. Mahmoud Mittelstr.7 D-53340 Meckenheim +49175-6159618 (21 January 2007) ¦ (url: ¦ Arabic ¦ Kurdish)