Petition to UN - an impressive demonstration of People Power
(related sources)
"1.  In accordance with the Resolution of League of Nations on December 16th, 1925, the Mousil Vilayet - Southern Kurdistan - was illegally annexed to the newly established state of Iraq without due consideration to the will of its residents nor its ethnic composition.  This was done illegally and in deference to the interests of external powers.
2.  ...
3.  Successive Iraqi governments have failed to honor any of the obligations of the State of Iraq towards the Kurdish people; non of the obligations stipulations stipulated under international nor the specific obligations stipulated by the League of Nations as a precondition for Kurdistan annexation to the State of Iraq in 1925."

For its part, the Council of the League decided the Turkish/Iraqi border issue 16 December 1925 provisionally in favor of the so-called "Brussels line" which could become definitive if the British Government provided for the proposed 25-year Mandate and for the League Commission of Inquiry's recommendations on Kurdish autonomy (ibid. p.86ss) to be met:

Successive Iraqi governments are seen to have failed to honor many of Iraq's constitutive "obligations of international concern". Iraq thus seems to have forfaited whatever rights it was entrusted with in regard to the Mosul Vilayet. At the same time, the International Community also has solemnly undertaken obligations in that region. And it would be helpful, if it were to honor and enforce those long-standing commitments and guarantees in ways and with means effectively protecting the Mosul Vilayet inhabitants against further genocidal practices and other human rights violations.


Successive Iraqi regimes have manifestly and grossly violated these obligations as well as the specific 1926 attachment conditions concerning the Mosul Vilayet. Iraq never had any other title to that area.  We fully understand the concern for the territorial integrity of any country, and we thus fully respect that of Iraq - in its borders of 1925, that is.  Indeed, Iraq is seen to have irrecoverably forfeited whatever rights it might have had with regard to the Mosul Vilayet.  To a lesser extent, that may also apply to the Marsh Arabs' ancestral lands in the Basra Vilayet and to other disaster zones of Iraq's own making.  At any rate, the UN General Assembly has all the powers in its hands to effectively and promptly resolve these humanitarian catastrophes without burdening the taxpayers any further.  For with some imagination and will it can truly build on its authority to "take such measures and give such directions as it may deem proper and effective in the circumstances."


On 14 February 1994, the Iraqi Delegate to the Commission on Human Rights sought to demonstrate how well successive Iraqi Governments, particularly since 1954, have provided for the protection and non-discrimination of their Assyrian, Kurdish and Turkoman minorities in particular with regard to their cultural heritage, their racial, religious and linguistic specificity and their human rights.


noting that, nevertheless, already in 1933 Iraq's Assyrian community suffered "genocidal practices" at the hands of the Iraqi authorities and that, until recently, successive Iraqi regimes continued to gravely violate Iraq's international obligations also with regard to Assyrian minority and property rights, thus - at least as far as Iraq's Assyrian minority is concerned - rendering meaningless the potentially still useful system of international minority and property rights guarantees:


Centralization in government has lost its appeal even within simple and homogenous communities. It has especially lost its rationale for being resorted to in communities that are of a pluralist nature made up of various nationalities, religious groups and languages, such as the Iraqi community. This high degree of centralization and the indifference of decision makers to the presence of the special characteristics of the Kurdish people are among the basic reasons for the Kurds being deprived of their legitimate rights under the successive Iraqi governments, which came to power under both the monarchy and the republic. This style of concentrating authority in the centre and the unwillingness to share it with the Kurds on a practical basis, even after the March 11, 1970 autonomy agreement, has been the hallmark of the role of the Iraqi state.